QUESTION 1The purpose of examining a client’s family constellation is: to bring unconscious factors to the surface. to determine who else in the family needs help. to get a picture of the individual’s early social world. both b and c.3 points QUESTION 2A multifaceted process occurring across the life span is called: gender role identification. gender bias. genderfication. gender role socialization.3 points QUESTION 3The benefits of existential counseling are that it allows people to circumvent anxiety and escape thoughts of death and dying. True False1 points QUESTION 4Which of the following family therapists is best known for his or her strategic approach to treatment? Satir Bowen Haley Minuchin3 points QUESTION 5The expressive arts were first offered as a course of study at: Vienna College. Leslie College. Berlin School. Cambridge University.3 points QUESTION 6During the initial session, which of the following would most likely be discussed according to Jung? dreams active imagination personal relationships all of the above3 points QUESTION 7Which of the following strategies is most consistent with empowerment in counseling and psychotherapy? Helping the client view the counselor or therapist as expert. Providing the client with a thorough explanation of the therapy process. Pointing out to clients how their past behaviors have been ineffective. Letting clients know specifically what goals they should be working toward.3 points QUESTION 8Which of the following is not considered a necessary and sufficient condition for change in the person-centered framework? accurate empathy authenticity/genuineness artistic expression unconditional positive regard3 points QUESTION 9The term social interest refers to: an individual’s attitude in dealing with the social world. a sense of identification and empathy with others. striving for a better future for all humans. all of the above.3 points QUESTION 10Consider a client who feels he or she is unlikable by others in his or her life. When the counseling or therapy discussion turns to how likable the client is to the counselor or therapist, this is an example of: distracting the client. empathic understanding. immediacy. self-actualization.3 points QUESTION 11The concept of core conditions, as applied to the helping relationship, includes all but one of the following: confrontation empathic understanding respect/positive regard warmth3 points QUESTION 12As a person becomes more congruent, which of the following changes is most likely to be seen? elimination of negative thoughts eradication of problem behaviors greater self-empowerment success in a failing relationship3 points QUESTION 13Gestaltists use dream work to help clients understand their past. True False1 points QUESTION 14Which of the following existentialists is most associated with transpersonal psychology? Kierkegaard Frankl Yalom Sarte3 points QUESTION 15According to person-centered theory, for someone to be continuously believed and trusted by a client they must: have years of professional experience. be genuine. know the right questions to ask. not make mistakes.3 points QUESTION 16Phenomenological perspective describes the concept that all persons view the world in a similar manner. True False1 points QUESTION 17To adequately understand the culturally different client, counselors should have some specific information about that culture. True False1 points QUESTION 18When using extinction to change behavior: you should expect positive behavior to increase. you should expect positive behavior to decrease. you should expect a burst of negative behavior, followed by positive behavior. you should expect a burst of positive behavior that fades away.3 points QUESTION 19Art therapy, dance/movement therapy, music therapy, and drama therapy are all considered: narrative approaches. expressive arts approaches. eclectic approaches. symbolic approaches.3 points QUESTION 20The first person to introduce the subjects of consciousness, spiritualism, and psychical research into the mental health fields was: Carl Jung Abraham Maslow. William James. Sigmund Freud.3 points QUESTION 21Which statement is most description of Buber’s “I-Thou” relationship? People speak about others but seldom to them. This relationship embodies a holy respect for the other person. This relationship has little meaning, because there is little sense of self. It shows a relationship that is condescending and not respectful.3 points QUESTION 22Immediacy is the ability of the counselor or therapist to deal with the relationship between past and present behaviors of the client. True False1 points QUESTION 23Perls: had a passionate belief in the holistic nature of humankind. believed that human beings had the capacity and strength to grow, develop, and to become the persons that they desired. asked clients to focus on why they behaved in certain ways. both “a” and “b” above.3 points QUESTION 24Awareness is the key to Gestalt therapy. Through awareness, the organism/person naturally proceeds toward: growth. integration. differentiated unity. all of the above.3 points QUESTION 25Active listening strategies include all but one of the following: paraphrase restatement giving advice clarifying3 points QUESTION 26Which of the following is not one of the four parts to dream narratives according to Jung? telling who, where, when, and what of the dream exposure and exploration of the complexes identifying the turning point in the dream determining what caused the dream3 points QUESTION 27The developer of dialectical behavior therapy is: Marsha Linehan. Albert Ellis. Carl Rogers. Fritz Perls.3 points QUESTION 28One of the views that Gestalt theory holds regarding the individual is that he or she is: fully responsible for his or her behavior. shaped by forces in the environment. motivated by unconscious drives. not able to become aware of himself or herself in the here and now.3 points QUESTION 29Jung parted ways with Sigmund Freud over Freud’s emphasis on biological drives and sexual urges as prime human motivating factors. True False1 points QUESTION 30A criticism of person-centered counseling or therapy is: its deterministic stance. rigid steps in the counseling or therapy process. too few specifics regarding actions for the new counselor or therapist. overly confrontational.3 points QUESTION 31Murray Bowen is acknowledged by many as the pioneer in applying cybernetic system’s thinking to human interaction. True False1 points QUESTION 32The term transpersonal means beyond the personal, ego, or self. True False1 points QUESTION 33A method in which the counselor or therapist leads the client through a number of questions to become aware of thoughts and distortions in thinking and to find and implement more adaptive replacements is called Socratic questioning. True False1 points QUESTION 34Cognitive therapy requires a large number of sessions to carry out treatment effectively. True False1 points QUESTION 35Alfred Adler was the first to notice that the development of children within families was heavily influenced by: balance of control between parents. birth order rivalry among the children. the cultural context of the family.3 points QUESTION 36An example of a theory that currently uses symbolic approaches as a basis for counseling is: Jungian analysis. cognitive–behavioral therapy. reality therapy. rational emotive behavior therapy.3 points QUESTION 37Regarding multicultural counseling, narrative therapy has been found to be particularly effective because: defines mental health within a social, political, and relational context. it was founded in a sociocultural context. it allows clients to tell their unique stories from their perspective. all of these are true.3 points QUESTION 38One of the most attractive features of Gestalt theory is its attention to the holistic nature of humankind. True False1 points QUESTION 39According to Jung, which of the following represents the integration of the conscious, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious in the individual? ego self psyche persona3 points QUESTION 40Two major disorders given a great deal of attention in feminist literature are: personality disorders and bipolar disorders. borderline personality disorders and hypertension. eating disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. insomnia and posttraumatic stress disorder.3 points QUESTION 41Psychoanalytic theory suggests that behavior is largely determined by irrational forces, conscious motivations, and biological or instinctual drive. True False1 points QUESTION 42Dialectical behavior theory was initially developed to treat: narcissistic personality disorder. histrionic personality disorder. borderline personality disorder. antisocial personality disorder.3 points QUESTION 43To understand the impact of diversity on counseling and psychotherapy, it is essential to understand which of the following? the systems in which clients develop and live the impact of culture upon the client the individual client’s view of the world all of the above3 points QUESTION 44Dialectical behavior theory uses a behavioral technique known as _______ in which the client learns to tolerate painful emotions without enacting self-destructive behaviors: positive reinforcement negative reinforcement exposure punishment3 points QUESTION 45The dialectical behavior theory model proposes that a successful counseling intervention must meet five critical functions. Which of the following is not one of these functions? improve and preserve the clients’ incentive to change boost the clients’ capabilities ensure the clients’ capabilities are specific to their environment structure the environment so that the treatment can take place3 points QUESTION 46The central issue in existential therapy is: resistance. freedom and responsibility. examining irrational beliefs. counter-transference.3 points QUESTION 47Which of these solution-focused therapy techniques involves asking clients to describe times in their lives they were able to solve their problem or when their problem was less severe? the miracle question the “change” or exception question scaling questions pre-change therapy3 points QUESTION 48The concept of triangulation is most associated with: Virginia Satir. Slavador Minuchin. Rudolf Dreikurs. Murray Bowen.3 points QUESTION 49Feminists believe it is essential to recognize that women and men are socialized differently and that gender role expectations begin to influence human development from the moment a child is born. True False1 points QUESTION 50The organized, realistic part of the psyche that mediates and seeks a balance between the other two is known as the superego. True False1 points QUESTION 51Confrontation is never used in Adlerian counseling. True False1 points QUESTION 52The systems perspective implies: the external environment is the most powerful influence on an individual’s development. individuals are autonomous and independent of their families. individuals are best understood through the context of their role in their families. systemic intervention is required to deconstruct unhealthy family patterns.3 points QUESTION 53Rational emotive behavior therapy is based on the notion that what you feel is based on what you think. True False1 points QUESTION 54The core practice of transpersonal counseling includes which of the following: yoga mindfulness biofeedback all of the above3 points QUESTION 55Existential counseling or psychotherapy provides an excellent context for addressing culture and diversity. True False1 points QUESTION 56Which statement is true of the person-centered approach? Therapists should act largely as teachers. The techniques used by the therapist are less important than his or her attitudes. Therapy is primarily the therapist’s responsibility. Therapists should give advice when clients need it.3 points QUESTION 57A client is partaking in cognitive distortion when he or she exaggerates a negative event to the point that the event has more impact than it deserves. What is this called? disqualifying the positive catastrophizing all-or-nothing thinking none of the above3 points QUESTION 58Although the theoretical underpinnings of transpersonal theory can be credited to a number of individuals, theories, and philosophical approaches to mental health and spiritual experience, _______ has emerged as the primary leader of this burgeoning field. Groff Wilber Jung Maslow3 points QUESTION 59Dialectical behavior theory is driven by three theories. Which of the following is not one of those? behavior therapy biosocial theory of borderline personality disorder dialectics Gestalt theory3 points QUESTION 60In the A-B-C model proposed by Ellis, the factor that creates the emotional and behavioral consequences is: activating event. consequences. beliefs. none of the above.3 points QUESTION 61Self in-relation theory was the work of: Sharf and Bem. Jordan and Surrey. Jean Baker Miller. Betty Freidan.3 points QUESTION 62In the case of Maria, a counselor or therapist using CBT might focus on using: pharmacotherapy. dream analysis. stress inoculation training. Beck’s cognitive therapy.3 points QUESTION 63The three people credited for the development of Gestalt therapy are: Perls, Burber, and Nitche. Perls, Perls, and Goodman. Rogers, Glassman, and Goodman. Perls, Kohler, and Koffka3 points QUESTION 64All of the following are goals of feminist therapy except for: confronting forms of institutional oppression. freeing clients of gender role socialization. striving for gender equality. resolving intrapsychic conflicts from early childhood3 points QUESTION 65The person-centered view of human nature: states that people are driven by irrational forces. assumes that people tend to remain stagnant. views all people as basically competitive. affirms a person’s capacity to direct his or her own life.3 points QUESTION 66The process of encouragement in Adlerian counseling includes: helping clients use all their resources and strengths. stripping away the biological drives. helping clients recognize that society has created situations that block clients. all of the above.3 points QUESTION 67Cognitive therapy has been criticized for its focus on: internal events (thinking). direct observation. listening procedures. intellectual understanding.3 points QUESTION 68Action therapy is considered a form of: dance therapy. narrative therapy. art therapy. both a and c.3 points QUESTION 69Feminist theory is: antimale. profemale. unified. not a singular, unified counseling theory.3 points QUESTION 70In classic psychoanalysis, the counselor maintains a “blank screen” approach in order to: analyze transference. analyze countertransference. analyze dreams. two of the above.3 points QUESTION 71Castration anxiety and the Oedipus complex appear in this stage of psychosocial development genital phallic anal latent3 points QUESTION 72Which of the following did Adler not stress? the unity of personality focus on early childhood sexual experiences as determinants of personality functioning behavior is purposeful and goal oriented feelings of inferiority3 points QUESTION 73Heidegger’s notions of choice, that each choice one makes represents the loss of an alternative, include all of the following except: the past becomes important in terms of lost opportunities. future choices are limited due to past choices and the time remaining to fulfill them. people have the freedom to choose but must balance this with responsibility. some choices are irrational and people need to train themselves not to make them with rewards and punishments.3 points QUESTION 74Which of the following is descriptive of what closure means in existential counseling? Facing the end of the helping relationship is the final confrontation with reality. It means stopping therapy at the end of the semester at a counseling center. It is when counselors close out all of their files. It is a relatively unimportant part of counseling.3 points QUESTION 75Which of the following best describes those strategies used to add depth and enhance the relationship? self-disclosure by the counselor or therapist confrontation by the counselor or therapist attending to nonverbal behaviors of the client all of the above3 points QUESTION 76A strategy of feminist counselors for empowering clients is to involve them in naming their problem and participating in directing the counseling process. This strategy is called: self-disclosure. gender role analysis. demystifying the counseling process. client empowerment.3 points QUESTION 77According to Jung, one way that the archetype is expressed is through: the shadow. sacred images. the superego. the ego.3 points QUESTION 78The defense mechanism of redirecting thoughts, feelings, and impulses from an object that gives rise to anxiety to a safer, more acceptable one is known as: displacement. sublimation. repression. regression.3 points QUESTION 79Understanding the nature of the presenting problem in the goals of cognitive–behavioral theory is best looked at through which perspective? affective behavioral cognitive all of the above3 points QUESTION 80Change during Gestalt counseling and psychotherapy comes about as clients become more aware of themselves through: using a continuum of awareness focused on how, what, and where. using questions rather than statements. using the third-person pronoun “they.” addressing others indirectly.3 points QUESTION 81Which of the following are true regarding advocacy as a part of counseling and psychotherapy? Counselors or therapists should assume that clients cannot advocate for themselves. Advocacy is different from counseling and psychotherapy in that clients do not need informed consent. Advocacy can take place at many different levels from individual to systemic. Advocating for clients and client groups damages the therapeutic alliance.3 points QUESTION 82According to rational emotive behavior therapy, certain values promote emotional adjustment and mental health. Which of the following is not one of these values? non-utopian low frustration tolerance flexibility high frustration tolerance3 points QUESTION 83The family life spiral is: an example of family decline. a linear model. an example of a life stressor. a developmental model.3 points QUESTION 84The counseling profession has fully adapted to the diversity of society. True False1 points QUESTION 85The founder of person-centered therapy is: Frederick “Fritz” Perls. Natalie Rogers. Rollo May. Carl Rogers.3 points QUESTION 86The central concept of the expressive arts approach in counseling is: action. self-actualization. reaction. none of the above.3 points QUESTION 87Which of the following family therapists is best known for his or her structural approach to treatment? Satir Bowen Haley Minuchin3 points QUESTION 88A counselor directing family members to engage in a communication game to examine how their incongruent messages lead to pain and lower self-esteem is following which approach to family therapy? conjoint transgenerational narrative structural3 points QUESTION 89Teasing out stressors poses a challenge for the family therapist because of the family’s: mistrust of therapy. many stories. multigenerational issues. severity of pain.3 points QUESTION 90In choice theory, human motivation springs from which of these five sources? belonging, survival, knowledge, fun, power survival, belonging, power, freedom, fun power, achievement, enjoyment, information, security survival, achievement, love, success, pride3 points QUESTION 91A tool for conceptualizing key relationships in a three-generational extended family is a: genogram. lifestyle assessment. projective test. family sketch.3 points QUESTION 92Reality therapy is: more rational than humanistic more behavioral than cognitive. more cognitive–behavioral than nondirective. more humanistic than existential.3 points QUESTION 93The dialectical behavior theory model uses individual therapy, group therapy, and phone coaching. True False1 points QUESTION 94One of the primary goals of transpersonal counseling is to: bring the client to an acceptable level of mental health. bring the client to a point where he or she can begin to work on transpersonal issues. take the client into the realm of transcendence, unity, and extraordinary mental health. none of the above.3 points QUESTION 95In reality therapy, the skilled counselor or therapist treats behavior as: the result of social pressure and limited perceptions of possibilities. information received from parents and from the surrounding culture. caused by self-verbalizations that can be helpful or hurtful. chosen as a result of unmet wants and needs.3 points QUESTION 96Stage 1 (relationship development) of the helping process includes all but one of the following activities: initial meeting problem solution data gathering rapport building3 points QUESTION 97If a counselor is trained specifically in an expressive art technique, he or she does not need to integrate his or her approach with a theory. True False1 points QUESTION 98Which of the following best describes those strategies used to aid in data gathering? questioning probing silence a and b above3 points QUESTION 99In rational emotive behavior therapy, according to DiGiuseppe, an example of an “inelegant” solution (i.e., a copying strategy for a particular event, not long term) is: accepting automatic thoughts accepting irrational thoughts reframing none of the above3 points QUESTION 100In the A-B-C model proposed by Ellis, the factor that creates the emotional and behavioral consequences is: activating event. consequences. beliefs. none of the above.3 points QUESTION 101Which of the following is not considered one of the six core principles of feminist therapy? an intrapsychic orientation commitment to social change recognition of all types of oppression the person is political3 points QUESTION 102Which of the following is not one of the three approaches to existential counseling? dynamic existentialism humanistic existentialism cognitive–behavioral existentialism transpersonal existentialism3 points QUESTION 103The most important factor in the therapeutic alliance is the: quality and nature of the relationship between counselor or therapist and client. counselor’s or therapist’s skills. client’s willingness to work hard. depth of the problems being experienced.3 points QUESTION 104This component of the psyche strives to protect the individual from experiencing anxiety and guilt: ego superego id conscious3 points QUESTION 105According to Ellis, the shoulds, oughts, and musts fall under which of the following categories? self-demandingness other-demandingness world-demandingness all of the above3 points QUESTION 106The Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development’s Multicultural Counseling Competencies emphasize: self-awareness, spiritual awareness, and valuing peace. knowledge of different cultures, their customs, and traditional foods. self-awareness, awareness of clients’ worldviews, and awareness of culturally appropriate interventions. not working with culturally different clients.3 points QUESTION 107Reality therapy can be applied to the following clients: the elderly and retired preschool children addicted clients all of the above3 points QUESTION 108All of the following are techniques used in solution-focused therapy except for: scaling questions the miracle question using a reflecting team exception questions3 points QUESTION 109Gestalt-therapy techniques are designed to help the client: intensify feelings and experiences. free him or herself from specific behavioral symptoms. expand awareness of the here-and-now. both a. and c.3 points QUESTION 110Which of the following is not consistent with rational emotive behavior therapy? Events or other people make us feel bad or good. Thinking, feeling, and behaving are interconnected. Emotional distress results from exaggeration, overgeneralization, and unvalidated assumptions. Irrational beliefs emanate from environmental and genetic factors.3 points QUESTION 111The founders of solution-focused brief therapy are Insoo Kim Berg and Steve de Shazer. Michael White and David Epston. Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis. Frederick and Laura Perls.3 points QUESTION 112 In practicing reality therapy, counselors and therapists focus on: the interpersonal relationships of the client. insight into causes of behavior. family history. personal history.3 points QUESTION 113 An ethnic minority client is silent during the initial phase of counseling. This silence is probably best interpreted as: resistance. demonstration of uncooperative behavior. a response consistent with his or her cultural context. a sign that counseling will not work with this client.3 points QUESTION 114Individuals are seen by Adlerians as wanting to contribute and cooperate for the betterment of self and others. True False1 points QUESTION 115The technique of free association: is linear and planned to direct and guide the client. uses intuition and linking, which leads to new personal insights and meanings. does not require clarification and confrontation. is used to unearth specific answers or memories to questions of childhood experiences.3 points QUESTION 116Adlerians believe that discouragement: is minimal in comparison with other dysfunctions. can be overcome with medication. is not part of an Adlerian viewpoint. is the basic condition that prevents people from functioning.3 points QUESTION 117According to reality therapy, human beings change their behavior only if they change their level of perception. True False1 points QUESTION 118In working with a triangulated relationship, Bowen would be inclined to: engage in self-disclosure to build trust. side with one member involved in the triangle. join the family. remain detached, reinforcing calmness and rationality.3 points QUESTION 119Which humanistic approach emphasizes the basic attitudes of the therapist as the core of the therapeutic process?Which humanistic approach emphasizes the basic attitudes of the therapist as the core of the therapeutic process? psychoanalytic therapy Adlerian therapy family therapy person-centered therapy3 points QUESTION 120People who respond to others by acting on the conditions of worth others place on them are most likely to lead productive, satisfying lives. True False1 points QUESTION 121Which one of the following is not associated with the cognitive-behavioral action-oriented therapies? existential therapy cognitive therapy reality therapy rational emotive behavior therapy3 points QUESTION 122Rational emotive behavior therapy is based on the assumption that humans have a biological tendency to think irrationally as well as rationally. True False1 points QUESTION 123Wolpe’s systematic desensitization is based on the principles of: classical conditioning. modeling operant conditioning. none of the above3 points QUESTION 124Which of the following is true regarding social identity development models? They are often based on the assumptions that individuals have varying degrees of awareness and acceptance of their social identities. They characterize an individual’s level of identification with a social identity group through the individual’s display of pathology. They only address the identity development of racial and ethnic minorities. They describe the social identity development process as culminating in mainstreaming into dominant society.3 points QUESTION 125In reality therapy, the environment or the counseling or psychotherapeutic atmosphere includes attending behaviors, doing the unexpected, and use of metaphors. True False
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