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CHAPTER 11) Define evolution2) Name the properties that define life and briefly explain each.3) List the hierarchy of biological organization from the least to the most complex level in all the three tiers of organization.4) Define:  Biopshere,  ecosystem, community, population, organ systems, organs.5) What are emergent properties?6) What are the two processes that define the dynamics of an ecosystem.7)  Explain the flow of energy and nutrients through an ecosystem.8)  What is the lowest level of organization that can perform  all the activities required for life?9) Define :  prokaryotic cell , eukaryotic cell.10) Differentiate between a prokaryotic cell & a eukaryotic cell and give examples of each.11)  What are the similarities between prokaryotic  &  eukaryotic cells?12)  Describe the structure of DNA. What is its function?13) Define a nucleotide.14)  What are genes?15)  Distinguish between a negative feedback system and a positive feedback system.16)  What is Taxonomy?17) List the 3 main domains and the differentiating feature between the three.18) What are the kingdoms under the domain  Eukarya?19) Describe Darwin’s theory of Natural selection in terms of his observations and his inferences.20) Define :  hypothesis.21)  How is discovery based science different from hypothesis based science?22) Differentiate between qualitative data and quantitative data. Give an example of each.CHAPTER 2Define:  element, compound, atomName the elements that make up about 96% of living cellsWhat is a trace element?Make a list of trace elements.Define atomic number and atomic mass numberList the differences between the 3 sub atomic particles ; protons, electrons and neutrons.Find the number of protons, electrons and neutrons for the following elements168O, 146C, 2211Na, 3918Ar A certain atom  has 11 protons,  12 neutrons and 11 electrons.  Calculate its atomic number and atomic mass number. Define isotopes. How  are radioactive isotopes useful in tracing atoms through metabolic processes?What are electron shells?What are valence electrons.What determines the chemical behavior of  atoms? Draw the electron distribution and determine the number of valence electrons for146C,   b) 2211Na,   c)11 H,   d) 3517ClWhy are elements like Helium, neon and Argon chemically inert? What is a covalent bond?Explain the difference between a polar covalent bond and a non-polar covalent bond. Give examples of each.What is an ionic bond? Explain how NaCl molecule is formed by ionic bonding.Differentiate between covalent and ionic bonds.Explain hydrogen bonding using water molecule as your example.What are Van Der Waals forces?Define: reactants, products and chemical equilibrium.CHAPTER 3Is water molecule polar or non-polar?  Explain why?What is cohesion and Adhesion? What gives water its cohesive and adhesive properties?Why is a small insect able to stand on the surface of water without falling in?How do plants transport water molecules against gravity to the cells in the leaves at the top from their roots?Why does water have a greater ability to resist temperature changes compared to other liquids?Define : Calorie and specific heat.What is the specific heat of water?How do our bodies cool off after intense activity? (in other words, explain evaporative cooling)Why does ice float on water and not sink?Define the terms Hydrophilic and hydrophobicWhy does oil not mix with water?Why is water a versatile solvent?Which of the following molecules can dissolve in watera)Ionic molecule           b) non-polar molecule             c) non-ionic polar molecule   14) Are non-polar molecules, hydrophilic or hydrophobic?   15)  Define : Mole and molarity    16)  Define:  Acids, Bases and pHCalculate the pH of the solutions with the following concentrations 10 -2  M,    b)10-13 MWhat happens to the hydrogen ion concentration as the pH value increases by one unit, for example, pH changes from 1 to 2?  (answer: H+ concentration  decrease 10 times for every 1 unit increase in pH) Which of the following indicates the strongest acid            pH =12, pH = 1.5, pH = 2, pH = 9Which of the following indicates the strongest base/alkali            pH =12, pH = 1.5, pH = 2, pH = 9 What are buffers?How do buffers resist a change in pHCHAPTER 4: What does the term organic compound mean? What does the Experiment by Miller and Urey help us conclude?How many covalent bonds can carbon form and why? Define hydrocarbons.   Are hydrocarbons hydrophylic or hydrophobic?  Why? Define isomers. Explain the differences between structural isomers, geometric isomers and enantiomers. How do the two forms of geometric isomers  (cis  and trans) differ from each other.   What is a functional group? What is its significance?  Memorize the names, structure and functional properties of the following functional groupsHydroxyl, Carboxyl, Carbonyl, Amino, sulfhydryl, PhosphateWhat does ATP stand for? What is its primary function?

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